Speech Analysis: JFK Inaugural Address

John F. Kennedy
Inaugural Address
Rhetorical Analysis presented by E. Ryan


John F. Kennedy’s 1961 inaugural address is remembered as one of the most significant speeches of the twentieth century. Kennedy's speech is noteworthy for its eloquence and its powerful use of rhetoric to encourage Americans to accept the challenges of a changing world. This rhetorical analysis will explore how Kennedy was able to effectively employ rhetorical strategies and devices to persuade his audience and challenge them to take an active role in the advancement of world peace.

John F. Kennedy photograph in the Oval Office by Cecil Stoughton
John F. Kennedy Image by Cecil Stoughton, White House
See Commons:Licensing. Public Domain, Link

I encourarge you to:

  • Read the annotated transcript below
  • As you do so, you can hover over any of the highlighted words/phrases in the transcript to see a brief explanation of the rhetorical devices and techniques used. 
  • Most of those annotations contain a link to see further information on the device/technique used.


Sometimes a phrase may contain more than one rhetorical device. When this happens, we do one of two things:

  1. we tag part of it, and use the tooltip to explain the full part of the phrase that demonstrates that device.
  2. we ignore it, on the basis that there are plenty other highlighted examples of the device used in the speech.

Annotated transcript

Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens:

We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom -- symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning -- signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God Learn more. the s Learn more.ame s Learn more.olemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago.

The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human Learn more. poverty and all forms of human Learn more. life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe -- the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God.

We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution.

Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans -- born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage, and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any Learn more. friend, oppose Learn more. The conjunction 'and' that should be here has been deliberately omitted. any foe Learn more. 'Foe', along with its antonym 'friend' a few words earlier, constitutes antithesis. , to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

This much we pledge Learn more. -- and more.

To those Learn more. old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do -- for we dare not Learn more. meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.

To those Learn more. new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall Learn more. not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall Learn more. always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom -- and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside Learn more. This is an analogy that is built on a metaphor..

To those Learn more. people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required -- not because Learn more. the Communists may be doing it, not because Learn more. we seek their votes, but because Learn more. it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

To Learn more. our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge: to convert our good words into good deeds, in a new alliance for progress, to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.

To Learn more. that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support -- to Learn more. prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective, to Learn more. strengthen its shield of the new and the weak, and to Learn more. enlarge the area in which its writ may run.

Finally, to those Learn more. nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both Learn more.sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.

We dare not Learn more. tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.

But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course -- both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both Learn more. rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both Learn more.racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war.

So let us begin anew -- remembering on both sides Learn more. that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate.

Let both sides Learn more. explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.

Let both sides Learn more., for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms, and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations.

Let both sides Learn more. seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.

Let both sides Learn more. unite to heed, in all corners of the earth, the command of Isaiah -- to "undo the heavy burdens, and [to] let the oppressed go free."

And, if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides Learn more. join in creating a new endeavor -- not a new balance of power, but a new world of law -- where the strong are just, and the weak secure, and the peace preserved.

All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days; nor in the life of this Administration; nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.

In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.

Now the trumpet summons us again -- not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need -- not as a call to battle, though embattled we are -- but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation,"² a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.

Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?

In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility -- I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it. And the glow from that fire can truly light the world.

And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country Learn more..

My fellow citizens of the world, ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man Learn more. This senence is parallel with the previous one. .

Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.

Other observations

Aside of the rhetorical devices used in this speech, it is noteworthy for a number of other reasons:

Further reading

The analysis presented above focuses on the rhetoroical devices used in the speech. There is a lot more to know about this speech that is not covered in detail here. Please see the links below for further useful resources.